Global Populations

Data Analytics Is Our Specialty


We specialize in finding the specific aspects of your heritage which other ancestral heritage companies may have difficulty discerning. Based on our 200+ group reference population, you may be able to clarify your ancestry further than ever before.

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Let us help you uncover your history.

From person to person, human DNA is around 99.5% identical but there are small differences called variants which make each person’s genome unique.

 

These variants are linked to a wide range of traits and give us an idea of which ancestral groups you descend from. We generate the personalized report after analyzing your DNA matches with these reference populations.  

 

Along with a detailed geographic and ethnic breakdown of your ancestral origins, we display a heat map overlay within your report which displays geographically where the populations sharing your ancestral genome are dispersed. This may also show related groups that mixed with other neighboring population clusters during the course of history. 

*This is for illustration purposes only.    Results may vary.

Reference Groups

To the right is a sample list of some of our reference populations in alphabetical order. As you can see, our list spans the globe and will assist you immensely in determining your ancestral origins.

Many of these groups are closely related, and there is a high degree of overlap. It is important to note that the regions the African continent encompasses have the widest range in genetic diversity out of all human populations since all modern humans are ultimately descended from groups within this continent.

It is interesting to note that within similar geographic regions there can be unexpected ranges in genetic variation. For example, Ethiopians have been found to have a closer genetic affinity to Armenians than with neighboring Bantu populations and Somalis are more genetically similar to Gulf Arab populations than with other African populations.

To form the data set for our reference panel, we have utilized data from several sources which include the Human Genome Diversity Project, the Simons Genome Diversity Project, Population Reference Sample data set, the 1000 Genomes Project, the International HapMap project, and our own customer outreach program which adds consenting individuals with a deep regional history in a particular region to the reference data set. This customer outreach program has given us access to data which is representative of numerous underserved ethnic groups and regions.

 

Our algorithms speculatively match customers to approximate regions and ethnic groups using information inferred from the reference data set. Please note that our test does not conclusively prove you have definitive ancestry within the listed population groups since these are speculative algorithmic matches and as such entail a moderate degree of inaccuracy.

European Reference Populations


We include the following ethnic groups and their regional divisions. These regional divisions generally center on geographical differences. Notably, within England alone, there are several distinct population clusters. On your report, we will list the specific regions if they are prominent. For example, for Britain we may list: Cornish, English (Unspecified), English (Sussex, Somerset, Kent, Cornish, Devon, Northumberland, Yorkshire, North, South, East, West, etc), Irish (north, south), Scottish, Orcadian, Welsh (north, south), etc.

Similarly, other European nations share notable distinctions between their regions, and we will list them wherever possible. Here is a brief list of some of the other European ethnicities which we reference:

French (Breton, Norman, etc), German (east, west, etc), Belgian, Dutch, Danish, Polish, Czech, Slovenian, Hungarian, Swiss, Iberian (general), Spanish (Galicia, Extremadura, etc..), Basque, Portuguese, Italian (north, south, Tuscan, Abruzzo, etc), Sardinian, Sicilian, Maltese, Greek, Balkan, Serbian, Romanian, Bulgarian, Belorussian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Lithuanian Jewish, Estonian, Russian, Flemish, Walloon, Friulian, Frisian, Siberian (found in Finnish populations), Sami, Finnish, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Hungarian, Austrian, Romani, Georgian, Armenian, Ashkenazi Jewish, Kosovo, Macedonian, Albanian, Croatian, Moldovian, Turkish, Ukrainian Jewish, Ukrainian, Italian Jewish, Cypriot, Sephardic Jewish, Nenet , Chechen, Chuvash, Georgian Jewish, Icelandic, Moldavian (Romania, Moldova, Ukraine), Turkish (Aydin, Trabzon, Kayseri, West, East, etc).




African Reference Populations


!Kung
Abron (Brong)
Acoli (Uganda/Sudan)
Afar (Ethiopia)
Agaw (Ethiopia)
Akan (Ghana, Ivory Coast)
Ambundu (Angola)
Balanta (Senegal, The Gambia)
Bambara
Bamoun
Bantu- Northeast
Bantu- South Africa
Bantu- Southeast
Bantu- Southwest
Bantu-Kenya
Biaka Pygmy
Bulala (Chad)
Dogon
Dyula (Mali)
East African
Efik (Nigeria)
Esan (West Africa)
Esomali
Ethiopian
Ethiopian Jewish
Ethiopian-Amhara
Ethiopian-Anuak
Ethiopian-Ari
Ethiopian-Gumuz
Ethiopian-Oromo
Ethiopian-Tigray
Ethiopian-Wolayta
Ewe (Togo, Ghana)
Fang
Fon (Benin)
Fulani
Fur (Sudan)
Gadaba
Gambian
Gumuz (Ethiopia)
Gbagyi (Nigeria)
Hadza
Hausa
Hema
Igbo
Kaba
Kikuyu
Kongo
Luhya
Maasai
Mada
Mandinka
Mbuti Pygmies
Mende
Nguni (Southern Africa- Xhosa, Zulu, Swazi)
North African
Northeast Bantu
Ovimbundu (Angola)
Pedi (South Africa)
Pygmy
Sahariya
San
Sandawe
Somali
Sotho Tswana
Sudanese
Xhosa
Yoruba
Zulu




Eastern Asian Reference Populations


Burmese
Cambodian
Cambodian - Khmer
Chinese (Unspecified)
Chinese - (Han, north, south, etc)
Dai (Chinese)
Filipino
Garo
Hakka (China)
Hallaki
Hezhen
Hmong
Ho
Iban
Indonesian (Batak, Dayak, etc)
Japanese
Kinh
Korean
Lahu
Malay
Miaozu (Miao)
Mongolian
Naxi (China)
Oroqen (Northern China)
She (Southern China)
Thai
Tharu (Nepal)
Tibetan
Tu
Tujia
Vietnamese
Xibo
Yi




Central Asian and Russian Reference Populations


Abazin (Caucasus)
Adyghe (Caucasus)
Balkar (Caucasus)
Buryat (Siberia)
Chukchi
Daur
Dhurwa
Dolgan
Erzya
Evenki
Evens
Hazara
Kabardin
Kargopol (Russian)
Kazakh
Ket
Koryak
Kumyk
Kyrgyz
Lezgin
Mari (Russia)
Mordovian (Russia)
Nenet
Nganasan (Siberia)
Nogai (Russia)
North-Ossetian
Ossetian (Caucasus)
Russian- (Smolensk, Volga, etc)
Selkup (Siberia)
Shors (Russia)
Siberian
Stalskoe (Russia)
Tabassaran (Dagestan)
Tajik
Tatar
Turkmen
Tuva
Uygur
Uzbek
Uzbek Jewish
Yakut
Yukagir




South Asian Reference Populations


Asur (India)
Bangladeshi
Balochi
Bene Israeli Jewish
Bengali
Bengali-Brahmin
Bhatia
Bhil
Bhunjia
Bihari
Bihari-Brahmin
Bihari-Muslim
Bnei Menashe Jewish
Bonda (India)
Brahmin-Tamil Nadu
Brahmin-Uttar Pradesh
Brahmin-Uttaranchal
Brahui (Baluchistan)
Burusho
Caribbean-Indian
Chamar
Chenchu (India)
Cochin Jewish
Dharkar
Dusadh
Goan
Gond
Great Andamanese
Gujarati
Gujarati-Muslim
Gujarati-Patel
Hakkipikki
Haryana-Jatt
Indian-Andhra Pradesh
Indian-Bihari
Indian-Gujarati
Indian-Haryana
Indian-Kannada
Indian-Kashmiri
Indian-North
Indian-Punjabi
Indian-South
Indian-Tamil
Indian-Telugu
Irula
Iyengar-Brahmin
Iyer-Brahmin
Juang
Kalash
Kamsali
Kanjar
Karnataka
Karnataka-Brahmin
Kashmiri
Kashmiri-Pahari
Kashmiri-Pandit
Kerala
Kerala-Brahmin
Kerala-Christian
Kerala-Muslim
Kerala-Nair
Kharia
Khasi
Kol
Kshatriya
Kurumba
Lambadi
Lodi (Pashtun tribe)
Madiga
Maharashtrian
Makrani
Mala
Mawasi (India)
Meena
Meghawal
Naga
Naidu
Nepalese
Nihali (West/Central India)
North Kannadi
Nysha (Northeast India)
Onge (Andaman Islands)
Oriya
Pakistani
Paniya (Kerala)
Pathan
Piramalai
Piramalai-Kallar
Pulliyar
Punjabi
Punjabi Jatt
Punjabi-Arain
Punjabi-Brahmin
Punjabi-Jatt-Muslim
Punjabi-Jatt-Sikh
Punjabi-Khatri
Punjabi-Ramgarhia
Pushtikar Brahmin
Rajasthani
Rajasthani Brahmin
Sakilli (India)
Santhal (India)
Savara
Siddi
Sindhi
Sinhalese
Sri lankan
Srivastava
Tamil
Tamil Nadu - Brahmin
Tamil Nadu- Dalit
Tamil Nadu- Scheduled Caste
Tamil-Nadar
Tamil-Vellalar
Tamil-Vishwakarma
Tamil_Nadu
Telugu
Urkarah
Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh- Brahmin
Uttar Pradesh- Kshatriya
Uttar Pradesh- Muslim
Uttar Pradesh- Scheduled-caste
Vaish
Velama
Vysya




Oceanic Reference Populations


Australian Aboriginal
Chamorro
Maori
Melanesian
Papuan
Polynesian
Samoan
Tongan




North, Central, and South American Reference Populations


Amerindian - Brazil – (Karitiana, Tupi, Surui, Guarani, etc)
Amerindian - South - Andean
Bolivia/ Peru/ Ecuador – (Quechua, Aymara)
Greenland - Eastern, Western
Mayan (Mexico, Guatemala)
Mexican Native - (Mixtec, Zapotec, Nahua, Yucatec, Totonac, Otomi)
Native American - Inuit
Native American - North - Pima (Arizona)
Native American – North




Middle Eastern and North African Reference Populations


Algerian, Alawite, Dom, Egyptian, Syrian, Lebanese, Palestinian, Jordanian, Druze, Kuwaiti, Omani, Iraqi, Saudi, Yemeni, Qatari, Iranian, Assyrian, Berber, Bedouin, Iraqi (Arab, Mandean). Iranian Jewish, Zoroastrian, Iraqi Jewish, Kurdish, Kurdish Jewish, Libyan, Libyan Jewish, Moroccan, Moroccan Jewish, Morocco - North, Morocco - South, Tunisian, Tunisian Jewish, Yemeni, Yemeni Jewish, Azerbaijani




Jewish Reference Populations


Many of our users wish to discover more about their Jewish heritage. The following are some of our Jewish reference populations:

Ashkenazi Jewish, Sephardic Jewish, Georgian Jewish, Caucasus Jewish, Bnei Menashe, Cochin Jewish, Bene Israel, Iraqi Jewish, Greek Jewish (Romaniote), Yemeni Jewish, Italian Jewish, Bulgarian Jewish, Bukharan Jewish, Iranian Jewish, Kurdish Jewish, Turkish Jewish, Israeli Jewish, Syrian Jewish, Libyan Jewish, Moroccan Jewish, Ethiopian Jewish, Tunisian Jewish, and Lithuanian Jewish.





*Note: We are adding reference populations on a constant basis, so these lists are updated frequently and may not include all groups which we test for. 

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Africa

East Asian Reference Populations


Ainu (Japan)
Burmese
Cambodian
Cambodian - Khmer
Chinese (Unspecified)
Chinese - (Han, north, south, etc)
Dai (Chinese)
Filipino
Garo
Hakka (China)
Hallaki
Hezhen
Hmong
Ho
Iban
Indonesian (Batak, Dayak, etc)
Japanese
Kinh
Korean
Lahu
Malay
Miao (China)
Mongolian
Nashi (China)
Oroqen (Northern China)
Qiang Ryukyuan (Japan)
She (Southern China)
Thai
Tharu (Nepal)
Tibetan
Tu
Tujia
Vietnamese
Xibo
Yi Zhuang




Caucasus, Central Asian, and Russian Reference Populations


Armenian
Azeri
Balkar (Caucasus)
Buryat (Siberia)
Chukchi
Daur
Dhurwa
Dolgan
Dygei (Adyghe)
Erzya
Evenki
Evens
Georgian
Hazara
Kabardin
Kargopol (Russian)
Kazakh
Ket
Koryak
Kumyk
Kyrgyz
Lezgin
Mari (Russia)
Mordovian (Russia)
Nenet
Nganasan (Siberia)
Nogai (Russia)
North-Ossetian
Ossetian
Russian- (Smolensk, Volga, etc)
Selkup (Siberia)
Shors (Russia)
Siberian
Stalskoe (Russia)
Tabassaran (Dagestan)
Tajik
Tatar
Turkmen
Tuva
Uygur
Uzbek
Uzbek Jewish
Yakut
Yukagir




South Asian Reference Populations


Asur (India)
Bangladeshi
Balochi
Bene Israeli Jewish
Bengali
Bengali-Brahmin
Bhatia
Bhil
Bhunjia
Bihari
Bihari-Brahmin
Bihari-Muslim
Bnei Menashe Jewish
Bonda (India)
Brahmin-Tamil Nadu
Brahmin-Uttar Pradesh
Brahmin-Uttaranchal
Brahui (Baluchistan)
Burusho
Caribbean-Indian
Chamar
Chenchu (India)
Cochin Jewish
Dharkar
Dusadh
Goan
Gond
Great Andamanese
Gujarati
Gujarati-Muslim
Gujarati-Patel
Hakkipikki
Haryana-Jatt
Indian-Andhra Pradesh
Indian-Bihari
Indian-Gujarati
Indian-Haryana
Indian-Kannada
Indian-Kashmiri
Indian-North
Indian-Punjabi
Indian-South
Indian-Tamil
Indian-Telugu
Irula
Iyengar-Brahmin
Iyer-Brahmin
Juang
Kalash
Kamsali
Kanjar
Karnataka
Karnataka-Brahmin
Kashmiri
Kashmiri-Pahari
Kashmiri-Pandit
Kerala
Kerala-Brahmin
Kerala-Christian
Kerala-Muslim
Kerala-Nair
Kharia
Khasi
Kol
Kshatriya
Kurumba
Lambadi
Lodi (Pashtun tribe)
Madiga
Maharashtrian
Makrani
Mala
Mawasi (India)
Meena
Meghawal
Naga
Naidu
Nepalese
Nihali (West/Central India)
North Kannadi
Nysha (Northeast India)
Onge (Andaman Islands)
Oriya
Pakistani
Paniya (Kerala)
Pathan
Piramalai
Piramalai-Kallar
Pulliyar
Punjabi
Punjabi Jatt
Punjabi-Arain
Punjabi-Brahmin
Punjabi-Jatt-Muslim
Punjabi-Jatt-Sikh
Punjabi-Khatri
Punjabi-Ramgarhia
Pushtikar Brahmin
Rajasthani
Rajasthani Brahmin
Sakilli (India)
Santhal (India)
Savara
Siddi
Sindhi
Sinhalese
Sri lankan
Srivastava
Tamil
Tamil Nadu - Brahmin
Tamil Nadu- Dalit
Tamil Nadu- Scheduled Caste
Tamil-Nadar
Tamil-Vellalar
Tamil-Vishwakarma
Tamil_Nadu
Telugu
Urkarah
Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh- Brahmin
Uttar Pradesh- Kshatriya
Uttar Pradesh- Muslim
Uttar Pradesh- Scheduled-caste
Vaish
Velama
Vysya




Middle Eastern Reference Populations


Egyptian, Syrian, Lebanese, Palestinian, Israeli Jewish, Jordanian, Druze, Kuwaiti, Omani, Iraqi, Saudi, Yemeni, Qatari, Iranian, Assyrian, Bedouin, Iraqi (Arab, Mandean). Iranian Jewish, Zoroastrian, Iraqi Jewish, Kurdish, Kurdish-Jewish, Yemeni, Yemeni- Jewish, Azeri, Azerbaijani Jewish





The African continent is further subdivided into the regions of North Africa, Northeast Africa, East Africa, Southeast Africa, Southwest Africa, Central Africa, and West Africa. 

Asia

East Asian Reference Populations


Ainu (Japan)
Burmese
Cambodian
Cambodian - Khmer
Chinese (Unspecified)
Chinese - (Han, north, south, etc)
Dai (Chinese)
Filipino
Garo
Hakka (China)
Hallaki
Hezhen
Hmong
Ho
Iban
Indonesian (Batak, Dayak, etc)
Japanese
Kinh
Korean
Lahu
Malay
Miao (China)
Mongolian
Nashi (China)
Oroqen (Northern China)
Qiang Ryukyuan (Japan)
She (Southern China)
Thai
Tharu (Nepal)
Tibetan
Tu
Tujia
Vietnamese
Xibo
Yi Zhuang




Caucasus, Central Asian, and Russian Reference Populations


Armenian
Azeri
Balkar (Caucasus)
Buryat (Siberia)
Chukchi
Daur
Dhurwa
Dolgan
Dygei (Adyghe)
Erzya
Evenki
Evens
Georgian
Hazara
Kabardin
Kargopol (Russian)
Kazakh
Ket
Koryak
Kumyk
Kyrgyz
Lezgin
Mari (Russia)
Mordovian (Russia)
Nenet
Nganasan (Siberia)
Nogai (Russia)
North-Ossetian
Ossetian
Russian- (Smolensk, Volga, etc)
Selkup (Siberia)
Shors (Russia)
Siberian
Stalskoe (Russia)
Tabassaran (Dagestan)
Tajik
Tatar
Turkmen
Tuva
Uygur
Uzbek
Uzbek Jewish
Yakut
Yukagir




South Asian Reference Populations


Asur (India)
Bangladeshi
Balochi
Bene Israeli Jewish
Bengali
Bengali-Brahmin
Bhatia
Bhil
Bhunjia
Bihari
Bihari-Brahmin
Bihari-Muslim
Bnei Menashe Jewish
Bonda (India)
Brahmin-Tamil Nadu
Brahmin-Uttar Pradesh
Brahmin-Uttaranchal
Brahui (Baluchistan)
Burusho
Caribbean-Indian
Chamar
Chenchu (India)
Cochin Jewish
Dharkar
Dusadh
Goan
Gond
Great Andamanese
Gujarati
Gujarati-Muslim
Gujarati-Patel
Hakkipikki
Haryana-Jatt
Indian-Andhra Pradesh
Indian-Bihari
Indian-Gujarati
Indian-Haryana
Indian-Kannada
Indian-Kashmiri
Indian-North
Indian-Punjabi
Indian-South
Indian-Tamil
Indian-Telugu
Irula
Iyengar-Brahmin
Iyer-Brahmin
Juang
Kalash
Kamsali
Kanjar
Karnataka
Karnataka-Brahmin
Kashmiri
Kashmiri-Pahari
Kashmiri-Pandit
Kerala
Kerala-Brahmin
Kerala-Christian
Kerala-Muslim
Kerala-Nair
Kharia
Khasi
Kol
Kshatriya
Kurumba
Lambadi
Lodi (Pashtun tribe)
Madiga
Maharashtrian
Makrani
Mala
Mawasi (India)
Meena
Meghawal
Naga
Naidu
Nepalese
Nihali (West/Central India)
North Kannadi
Nysha (Northeast India)
Onge (Andaman Islands)
Oriya
Pakistani
Paniya (Kerala)
Pathan
Piramalai
Piramalai-Kallar
Pulliyar
Punjabi
Punjabi Jatt
Punjabi-Arain
Punjabi-Brahmin
Punjabi-Jatt-Muslim
Punjabi-Jatt-Sikh
Punjabi-Khatri
Punjabi-Ramgarhia
Pushtikar Brahmin
Rajasthani
Rajasthani Brahmin
Sakilli (India)
Santhal (India)
Savara
Siddi
Sindhi
Sinhalese
Sri lankan
Srivastava
Tamil
Tamil Nadu - Brahmin
Tamil Nadu- Dalit
Tamil Nadu- Scheduled Caste
Tamil-Nadar
Tamil-Vellalar
Tamil-Vishwakarma
Tamil_Nadu
Telugu
Urkarah
Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh- Brahmin
Uttar Pradesh- Kshatriya
Uttar Pradesh- Muslim
Uttar Pradesh- Scheduled-caste
Vaish
Velama
Vysya




Middle Eastern Reference Populations


Egyptian, Syrian, Lebanese, Palestinian, Israeli Jewish, Jordanian, Druze, Kuwaiti, Omani, Iraqi, Saudi, Yemeni, Qatari, Iranian, Assyrian, Bedouin, Iraqi (Arab, Mandean). Iranian Jewish, Zoroastrian, Iraqi Jewish, Kurdish, Kurdish-Jewish, Yemeni, Yemeni- Jewish, Azeri, Azerbaijani Jewish





The Asian continent is divided into the regions of South Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, Southwest Asia (the Middle East), East Asia, and North Asia (Russia, Siberia). 

European Reference Populations


We include the following ethnic groups and their regional divisions. These regional divisions generally center on geographical differences. Notably, within England alone, there are several distinct population clusters. On your report, we will list the specific regions if they are prominent. For example, for Britain we may list: Cornish, English (Unspecified), English (Sussex, Somerset, Kent, Cornish, Devon, Northumberland, Yorkshire, North, South, East, West, etc), Irish (north, south), Scottish, Orcadian, Welsh (north, south), etc.

Similarly, other European nations share notable distinctions between their regions, and we will list them wherever possible. Here is a brief list of some of the other European ethnicities which we reference:

French (Breton, Norman, etc), German (east, west, etc), Belgian, Dutch, Danish, Polish, Czech, Slovenian, Hungarian, Swiss, Iberian (general), Spanish (Galicia, Extremadura, etc..), Basque, Portuguese, Italian (north, south, Tuscan, Abruzzo, etc), Sardinian, Sicilian, Maltese, Greek, Balkan, Serbian, Romanian, Bulgarian, Belorussian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Lithuanian Jewish, Estonian, Russian, Flemish, Walloon, Friulian, Frisian, Siberian (found in Finnish populations), Sami, Finnish, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Hungarian, Austrian, Romani, Georgian, Armenian, Ashkenazi Jewish, Kosovo, Macedonian, Albanian, Croatian, Moldovian, Turkish, Ukrainian Jewish, Ukrainian, Italian Jewish, Cypriot, Sephardic Jewish, Nenet , Chechen, Chuvash, Georgian Jewish, Icelandic, Moldavian (Romania, Moldova, Ukraine), Turkish (Aydin, Trabzon, Kayseri, West, East, etc).




African Reference Populations


!Kung
Abron (Brong)
Acoli (Uganda/Sudan)
Afar (Ethiopia)
Agaw (Ethiopia)
Akan (Ghana, Ivory Coast)
Ambundu (Angola)
Balanta (Senegal, The Gambia)
Bambara
Bamoun
Bantu- Northeast
Bantu- South Africa
Bantu- Southeast
Bantu- Southwest
Bantu-Kenya
Biaka Pygmy
Bulala (Chad)
Dogon
Dyula (Mali)
East African
Efik (Nigeria)
Esan (West Africa)
Esomali
Ethiopian
Ethiopian Jewish
Ethiopian-Amhara
Ethiopian-Anuak
Ethiopian-Ari
Ethiopian-Gumuz
Ethiopian-Oromo
Ethiopian-Tigray
Ethiopian-Wolayta
Ewe (Togo, Ghana)
Fang
Fon (Benin)
Fulani
Fur (Sudan)
Gadaba
Gambian
Gumuz (Ethiopia)
Gbagyi (Nigeria)
Hadza
Hausa
Hema
Igbo
Kaba
Kikuyu
Kongo
Luhya
Maasai
Mada
Mandinka
Mbuti Pygmies
Mende
Nguni (Southern Africa- Xhosa, Zulu, Swazi)
North African
Northeast Bantu
Ovimbundu (Angola)
Pedi (South Africa)
Pygmy
Sahariya
San
Sandawe
Somali
Sotho Tswana
Sudanese
Xhosa
Yoruba
Zulu




Eastern Asian Reference Populations


Burmese
Cambodian
Cambodian - Khmer
Chinese (Unspecified)
Chinese - (Han, north, south, etc)
Dai (Chinese)
Filipino
Garo
Hakka (China)
Hallaki
Hezhen
Hmong
Ho
Iban
Indonesian (Batak, Dayak, etc)
Japanese
Kinh
Korean
Lahu
Malay
Miaozu (Miao)
Mongolian
Naxi (China)
Oroqen (Northern China)
She (Southern China)
Thai
Tharu (Nepal)
Tibetan
Tu
Tujia
Vietnamese
Xibo
Yi




Central Asian and Russian Reference Populations


Abazin (Caucasus)
Adyghe (Caucasus)
Balkar (Caucasus)
Buryat (Siberia)
Chukchi
Daur
Dhurwa
Dolgan
Erzya
Evenki
Evens
Hazara
Kabardin
Kargopol (Russian)
Kazakh
Ket
Koryak
Kumyk
Kyrgyz
Lezgin
Mari (Russia)
Mordovian (Russia)
Nenet
Nganasan (Siberia)
Nogai (Russia)
North-Ossetian
Ossetian (Caucasus)
Russian- (Smolensk, Volga, etc)
Selkup (Siberia)
Shors (Russia)
Siberian
Stalskoe (Russia)
Tabassaran (Dagestan)
Tajik
Tatar
Turkmen
Tuva
Uygur
Uzbek
Uzbek Jewish
Yakut
Yukagir




South Asian Reference Populations


Asur (India)
Bangladeshi
Balochi
Bene Israeli Jewish
Bengali
Bengali-Brahmin
Bhatia
Bhil
Bhunjia
Bihari
Bihari-Brahmin
Bihari-Muslim
Bnei Menashe Jewish
Bonda (India)
Brahmin-Tamil Nadu
Brahmin-Uttar Pradesh
Brahmin-Uttaranchal
Brahui (Baluchistan)
Burusho
Caribbean-Indian
Chamar
Chenchu (India)
Cochin Jewish
Dharkar
Dusadh
Goan
Gond
Great Andamanese
Gujarati
Gujarati-Muslim
Gujarati-Patel
Hakkipikki
Haryana-Jatt
Indian-Andhra Pradesh
Indian-Bihari
Indian-Gujarati
Indian-Haryana
Indian-Kannada
Indian-Kashmiri
Indian-North
Indian-Punjabi
Indian-South
Indian-Tamil
Indian-Telugu
Irula
Iyengar-Brahmin
Iyer-Brahmin
Juang
Kalash
Kamsali
Kanjar
Karnataka
Karnataka-Brahmin
Kashmiri
Kashmiri-Pahari
Kashmiri-Pandit
Kerala
Kerala-Brahmin
Kerala-Christian
Kerala-Muslim
Kerala-Nair
Kharia
Khasi
Kol
Kshatriya
Kurumba
Lambadi
Lodi (Pashtun tribe)
Madiga
Maharashtrian
Makrani
Mala
Mawasi (India)
Meena
Meghawal
Naga
Naidu
Nepalese
Nihali (West/Central India)
North Kannadi
Nysha (Northeast India)
Onge (Andaman Islands)
Oriya
Pakistani
Paniya (Kerala)
Pathan
Piramalai
Piramalai-Kallar
Pulliyar
Punjabi
Punjabi Jatt
Punjabi-Arain
Punjabi-Brahmin
Punjabi-Jatt-Muslim
Punjabi-Jatt-Sikh
Punjabi-Khatri
Punjabi-Ramgarhia
Pushtikar Brahmin
Rajasthani
Rajasthani Brahmin
Sakilli (India)
Santhal (India)
Savara
Siddi
Sindhi
Sinhalese
Sri lankan
Srivastava
Tamil
Tamil Nadu - Brahmin
Tamil Nadu- Dalit
Tamil Nadu- Scheduled Caste
Tamil-Nadar
Tamil-Vellalar
Tamil-Vishwakarma
Tamil_Nadu
Telugu
Urkarah
Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh- Brahmin
Uttar Pradesh- Kshatriya
Uttar Pradesh- Muslim
Uttar Pradesh- Scheduled-caste
Vaish
Velama
Vysya




Oceanic Reference Populations


Australian Aboriginal
Chamorro
Maori
Melanesian
Papuan
Polynesian
Samoan
Tongan




North, Central, and South American Reference Populations


Amerindian - Brazil – (Karitiana, Tupi, Surui, Guarani, etc)
Amerindian - South - Andean
Bolivia/ Peru/ Ecuador – (Quechua, Aymara)
Greenland - Eastern, Western
Mayan (Mexico, Guatemala)
Mexican Native - (Mixtec, Zapotec, Nahua, Yucatec, Totonac, Otomi)
Native American - Inuit
Native American - North - Pima (Arizona)
Native American – North




Middle Eastern and North African Reference Populations


Algerian, Alawite, Dom, Egyptian, Syrian, Lebanese, Palestinian, Jordanian, Druze, Kuwaiti, Omani, Iraqi, Saudi, Yemeni, Qatari, Iranian, Assyrian, Berber, Bedouin, Iraqi (Arab, Mandean). Iranian Jewish, Zoroastrian, Iraqi Jewish, Kurdish, Kurdish Jewish, Libyan, Libyan Jewish, Moroccan, Moroccan Jewish, Morocco - North, Morocco - South, Tunisian, Tunisian Jewish, Yemeni, Yemeni Jewish, Azerbaijani




Jewish Reference Populations


Many of our users wish to discover more about their Jewish heritage. The following are some of our Jewish reference populations:

Ashkenazi Jewish, Sephardic Jewish, Georgian Jewish, Caucasus Jewish, Bnei Menashe, Cochin Jewish, Bene Israel, Iraqi Jewish, Greek Jewish (Romaniote), Yemeni Jewish, Italian Jewish, Bulgarian Jewish, Bukharan Jewish, Iranian Jewish, Kurdish Jewish, Turkish Jewish, Israeli Jewish, Syrian Jewish, Libyan Jewish, Moroccan Jewish, Ethiopian Jewish, Tunisian Jewish, and Lithuanian Jewish.





The European continent is further subdivided into the regions of Northwestern Europe, Western Europe, The Baltic, Southern Europe, Iberia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe.

Europe
Oceania

Oceanic Reference Populations


Australian Aboriginal
Chamorro
Maori
Melanesian
Papuan
Polynesian
Samoan
Tongan





The Oceanic region is mainly composed of Australia, Papua New Guinea, New Zealand, Polynesia, Micronesia, and several smaller island chains. 

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North and South America

Oceanic Reference Populations


Australian Aboriginal
Chamorro
Maori
Melanesian
Papuan
Polynesian
Samoan
Tongan





The continents of North and South America are subdivided into the regions of Western North America, Eastern North America, Greenland, Central America, the Caribbean, the Andean Region, the Amazonian Region, and the Chaco Region. 

How Is This Determined?

Part of our analysis of your data includes an estimation of your ethnicity. This estimate can give you more details on your ancestral origins and populations which share your genetic makeup.

 

We compare your raw DNA data to reference populations within our data sets to give you a comprehensive overview of your specific origins. The data we use references DNA samples from individuals with an extensive familial background within individual population groups or geographical regions.

 

If segments of your DNA closely match with reference samples from specific groups or regions, we have a clear estimate of the ethnic origins of that sample of your DNA. We also reference archaic human species, such as Neanderthals and Denisovans to determine if you share any variants from these two species in your DNA.

To form the data set for our reference panel, we have used data from several sources which include the Human Genome Diversity Project, the Population Reference Sample data set, the 1000 Genomes Project, the International HapMap project, and our own customer outreach program which adds consenting individuals with a deep regional history in a particular region to the reference data set. This customer outreach program has given us access to data which is representative of numerous underserved ethnic groups and regions.

 

Our algorithms speculatively match customers to approximate regions and ethnic groups using information inferred from the reference data set. 

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Anything Else I Should Know?

Estimates of ethnic origins based on DNA data always vary from database to database. Results can vary widely based on the data set used, and oftentimes do not identify specific ethnic groups which are not included in their database.

 

Our system utilizes multiple data sets to estimate your ethnic composition. Human populations have been in a state of perpetual migration for millenia, and thus these populations have displayed constant intermixing between different groups. 

Always keep in mind that even though you may have extensive roots within a particular country or region, constant gene flow has prevented a majority of world populations from being completely homogenous and genetically identifiable down to the level of one specific ethnicity. For example, even if you have had an extensive family history in the eastern region of Germany, you may still match with populations in regions within Germany, Poland, and surrounding countries. 

 

Current national boundaries do not always correspond to the ethnic groups within their national borders, and there is a high degree of uncertainty when approaching DNA ethnic estimations. We will process your data to the best of our ability to further clarify your ethnic origins. ​